I spent a fair amount of time this past week getting ready for my part in the July 10 DM Radio Webcast on columnar databases. Much of this was spent updating my information on SybaseIQ, whose CTO Irfan Khan was a co-panelist.
Sybase was particularly eager to educate me because I apparently ruffled a few feathers when my July DM Review column described SybaseIQ as a “variation on a columnar database” and listed it separately from other columnar systems. Since IQ has been around for much longer than the other columnar systems and has a vastly larger installed base—over 1,300 customers, as they reminded me several times—the Sybase position seems to be that they should be considered the standard, and everyone else as the variation. (Not that they put it that way.) I can certainly see why it would be frustrating to be set apart from other columnar systems at exactly the moment when columnar technology is finally at the center of attention.
The irony is that I’ve long been fond of SybaseIQ, precisely because I felt its unconventional approach offered advantages that few people recognized. I also feel good about IQ because I wrote about its technology back in 1994, before Sybase purchased it from Expressway Technologies—as I reminded Sybase several times.
In truth, though, that original article was part of the problem. Expressway was an indexing system that used a very clever, and patented, variation on bitmap indexes that allowed calculations within the index itself. Although that technology is still an important feature within SybaseIQ, it now supplements a true column-based data store. Thus, while Expressway was not a columnar database, SybaseIQ is.
I was aware that Sybase had extended Expressway substantially, which is why my DM Review article did refer to them as a type of columnar database. So there was no error in what I wrote. But I’ll admit that until this week’s briefings I didn’t realize just how far SybaseIQ has moved from its bitmapped roots. It now uses seven or nine types of indexes (depending on which document you read), including traditional b-tree indexes and word indexes. Many of its other indexes do use some form of bitmaps, often in conjunction with tokenization (i.e., replacing an actual value with a key that points to a look-up table of actual values. Tokenization saves space when the same value occurs repeatedly, because the key is much smaller than the value itself. Think how much smaller a database is if it stores “MA” instead of “Massachusetts” in its addresses. )
Of course, tokenization is really a data compression technique, so I have a hard time considering a column of tokenized data to be an index. To me, an index is an access mechanism, not the data itself, regardless of how well it’s compressed. Sybase serenely glides over the distinction with the Zen-like aphorism that “the index is the column” (or maybe it was the other way around). I’m not sure I agree, but the point doesn’t seem worth debating
Yet, semantics aside, SybaseIQ’s heavy reliance on “indexes” is a major difference between it and the raft of other systems currently gaining attention as columnar databases: Vertica, ParAccel, Exasol and Calpont among them. These systems do rely heavily on compression of their data columns, but don’t describe (or, presumably, use) these as indexes. In particular, so far as I know, they don’t build different kinds of indexes on the same column, which IQ treats as a main selling point. Some of the other systems store several versions of the same column in different sort sequences, but that’s quite different.
The other very clear distinction between IQ and the other columnar systems is that IQ uses Symmetrical Multi-Processing (SMP) servers to process queries against a unified data store, while the others rely on shared nothing or Massively Multi-Processor (MMP) servers. This reflects a fundamentally different approach to scalability. Sybase scales by having different servers execute different queries simultaneously, relying on its indexes to minimize the amount of data that must be read from the disk. The MPP-based systems scale by partitioning the data so that many servers can work in parallel to scan it quickly. (Naturally, the MPP systems do more than a brute-force column scan; for example, those sorted columns can substantially reduce read volumes.)
It’s possible that understanding these differences would allow someone to judge which type of columnar system works better for a particular application. But I am not that someone. Sybase makes a plausible case that its approach is inherently better for a wider range of ad hoc queries, because it doesn’t depend on how the data is partitioned or sorted. However, I haven’t heard the other vendors’ side of that argument. In any event, actual performance will depend on how the architecture has been implemented. So even a theoretically superior approach will not necessarily deliver better results in real life. Until the industry has a great deal more experience with the MPP systems in particular, the only way to know which database is better for a particular application will be to test them.
The SMP/MPP distinction does raise a question about SybaseIQ’s uniqueness. My original DM Review article actually listed two classes of columnar systems: SMP-based and MPP-based. Other SMP-based systems include Alterian, SmartFocus, Infobright, 1010Data and open-source LucidDB. (The LucidDB site contains some good technical explanations of columnar techniques, incidentally.)
I chose not to list SybaseIQ in the SMP category because I thought its reliance on bitmap techniques makes it significantly different from the others, and in particular because I believed it made IQ substantially more scalable. I’m not so sure about the bitmap part anymore, now that realize SybaseIQ makes less use of bitmaps than I thought, and have found that some of the other vendors use them too. On the other hand, IQ’s proven scalability is still much greater than any of these other systems—Sybase cites installations over 100 TB, while none of the others (possibly excepting Infobright) has an installation over 10 TB.
So where does all this leave us? Regarding SybaseIQ, not so far from where we started: I still say it’s an excellent columnar database that is significantly different from the (MPP-based) columnar databases that are the focus of recent attention. But, to me, the really important word in the preceding sentence is “excellent”, not “columnar”. The point of the original DM Review article was that there are many kinds of analytical databases available, and you should consider them all when assessing which might fit your needs. It would be plain silly to finally look for alternatives to conventional relational databases and immediately restrict yourself to just one other approach.